How is Solar Energy Generated?

The world's energy economy is shifting. Solar energy has dropped in price so substantially that it is now cheaper than fossil fuel energy in many parts of the world.

Brief History

Russell Ohl, who worked at Bell Labs, came up with the first silicon solar cell in 1941. In 1954, the first solar panel was made by the same company. It was possible because of Ohl's research. The first time solar panels were used in space missions was for business.

Working Principle of Solar Energy

The working principle of silicon solar panels, and thus solar cells, is quite simple. When sunlight strikes a cell, electrons leave their otherwise fixed location. These pass through an electrical circuit and power our electronics after leaving the silicon.

How is Solar Energy Generated?

Solar power systems use many different ways to turn the energy from the sun into something useful. The sun's energy is captured and turned into heat, then sent to thermal energy demand (thermal load), such as a home's heating system, a water heater, or an industrial process. This method may or may not involve thermal storage, but it almost always needs a backup energy source to meet demand when the sun isn't shining.

Requirement for Solar Energy Generation

All these energy systems need sunlight as their primary source of energy. For any solar energy system design, it is essential to know how much and what kind of solar energy is available at a given location. Even though solar radiation is primarily constant outside the earth's atmosphere, local climate effects can make a big difference in how much insolation is available on the earth's surface. Because the sun moves relative to the planet, different surfaces will catch different amounts of solar radiation.

Mechanism of Solar Energy Generation

The photovoltaic effect is at the heart of solar panel power generation research. The photovoltaic effect happens when certain materials are exposed to sunlight; the goal is to generate an electric current.

Solar cells are the individual components that make up a larger solar panel and are solar power sources. Silicon is used to make solar cells. Silicon, a nonmetal semiconductor, absorbs light and converts it to energy. Almost every device in the world contains silicon. Other semiconductors are used in solar cells, but Si is the most common, accounting for 95.00% of all solar cells manufactured today.

Two silicon layers are precisely treated, or "doped," in photovoltaic cells to produce an internal field at the interface between the layers. Free electrons travel through the solar cell and out of the Si junction due to the electric field, causing an electrical current to flow. Phosphorus and boron are commonly used as positive and negative doping agents to generate a solar cell's positive and negative sides, respectively.

How the Solar Energy is led from Solar Panel?

The solar panels generate electricity. Direct current (DC) is the only type of energy that batteries can store, and solar panels make it. The industry standard for cars and recreational vehicles is 12 volts DC. 24 or 48 volts DC can power the transmission. Connecting the similar solar panels in pairs for a 24 V system or four sets for a 48-volt system is all it takes. It includes windmills and micro-hydro generators that make DC power that can be used to charge batteries.

This DC energy will be stored in deep-cycle lead-acid batteries. It will ensure that power is always available, even if it isn't made. Batteries (like lead-acid) need to be fully charged regularly to keep working. Let them always have enough water. To get the most years out of your batteries, you need to keep a close eye on these things.

How Solar Energy is converted to Electricity?

When the batteries are fully charged, the charge control slows down or stops the charge to keep the batteries from being damaged by overcharging. You can find both manual control switches and meters or LEDs on a charge control.

Energy Generation Post Array


Batteries catch and store DC electrical energy. When needed, they can release vast amounts of stored energy to start or power heavy machinery that solar panels or a hydropower generator couldn't.

Circuit Breakers

Every circuit connected to a battery needs a fuse and a circuit breaker because batteries have a lot of power, just like electricity from the power company.

How big the battery needs to be is based on how much reserve power and surge power it requires. A battery box with an outside vent pipe can hold batteries that weigh 200 to 1000 pounds and are 2 to 12 square feet in size. This part needs to be put together carefully and correctly because it contains acid and has a lot of stored energy.


The most critical piece of electronics in a power system is the inverter. It changes the DC electricity in the batteries into the 120-volt AC electricity most homes use. The power from the battery goes to the inverter through short, thick wires and a big fuse or circuit breaker. After the inverter is changed to AC, the electricity comes from the house's circuit breaker box instead of the utility lines.

Breaker Box

Your home's breaker box controls how much power goes to your lights, outlets, and appliances.


A 120-volt AC engine generator is often a part of the scheme. It is a backup source of AC power that can be used to charge the battery when solar or wind power isn't available, when extra power is needed temporarily for construction or visitors, or when other equipment breaks down. The standby inverter starts charging when the generator is turned on. On the house side, the most potent generators have a push-button start.

When the generator is turned on, 120-volt AC electricity is sent to the power room, where it is used to run battery chargers and send AC electricity to the house through a circuit breaker.

Some inexpensive generators can charge batteries with DC electricity instead of AC. They give direct DC power to the battery.

Power Center

A Power Center is a place to charge batteries, inverters, solar panels, and other charging sources. It has system meters, DC circuit breakers, and cabling connectors. Buying, installing, and putting together each of these parts separately is more complicated.

Uses of Solar Power/Energy Generated

It is used to power lights, outlets, and appliances in a typical home. Most solar homes use 120 volts of AC, which the converter gives out. A few DC circuits are often added when DC is used to save energy. Small RVs, boats, and cottages that run on solar power might not have inverters and instead, use DC wiring and appliances.

The owner checks his batteries after they haven't been in the sun for a few days; who cares about the environment. If the battery level gets too low, a generator powered by an engine can be used to charge the batteries and keep the system running. When you connect a rechargeable battery to the generator's 120-volt AC, the battery is charged. The generator is turned off when the battery is fully charged. Some automatic electricity systems use this technology. Chargers for car batteries are called "converters" in technical terms

Is it possible to use solar energy to power your complete home?

Energy of this type has the potential to supply enough electricity to power your entire home. Choose the correct type of panel, installer, and angle for your home's needs to ensure that your solar panels perform at their best. While a solar panel system can meet your fundamental energy needs, it's unreasonable to expect that production level every day due to intermittency. Installing storage will assist you in avoiding relying on the grid when the sun isn't shining.

If you have solar panels connected to the grid, you will receive an electric bill, but you may not owe anything. You'll probably still owe money to your utility if your solar panels aren't producing enough electricity to meet your needs or your energy consumption has increased after installation. You'll need to link your solar panels to a solar battery backup system if you wish to rely on solar power/energy entirely.

Is it possible to use solar panels at night?

Solar panels, on the other hand, require sunlight to operate. Solar panels with solar battery storage store energy throughout the day for usage at night, even when the sun isn't shining.

How do residential solar panels work?

After estimating the number of panels required to power a home, they are mounted on the roof and positioned to maximize the sun's effect. These panels receive sunlight, generate power, and store it for cloudy days or nighttime use if a solar battery is installed.


When photons, or light atoms, knock electrons loose from atoms and set them in motion, a solar panel generates electricity. The electricity generated is useful in several ways. Solar panels are used to measure and change the flow of electrons into a usable electric current. The chemical and physical phenomenon that underpins the majority of solar energy technologies are based on the photovoltaic effect. The concentrating solar thermal power and concentrated solar power generates electricity using lenses and mirrors.